What Are the Four Stock Types?

Andrew Denney Springfield MO
3 min readApr 13, 2023

There are many different stocks available, and each one has its own advantages and dangers. You can choose the best stocks for your needs by understanding how the various stock kinds fit into your portfolio.

Common stock, preferred stock, cyclical stocks, and value stocks are the four fundamental categories of stocks. Knowing about them will help you locate the ideal investment because each one offers different benefits to investors.

The most popular kind of stock that investors purchase is common stock. They give shareholders ownership rights, give them a say in important corporate decisions, and may rise in value as a business develops.

To raise money for expansions and other business needs, companies issue common stocks. Additionally, they pay dividends to their shareholders using these securities.

Because of their greater growth potential, they are a well-liked investment choice, but they also carry some risk. For instance, the price of common stock might change drastically within a little period of time.

The common shareholders will also receive payment last in a corporation that enters liquidation due to financial difficulties. As a result, you’ll suffer greater financial losses than if you had invested in bonds or preferred stock.

Due to expected future revenues and dividend growth from the corporation, preferred stock is a sort of fixed-income investment that pays dividends and has the potential to appreciate in value. It also carries a reduced risk of loss than common stock, and investors who qualify for the preferred dividend tax deduction may benefit from it in terms of tax savings.

Private or pre-public enterprises offer preferred stocks to raise finance. They are often bought by institutional investors, who can write off the majority of the dividends from taxes and have a tendency to be less liquid than regular shares.

In addition to these advantages, buying preferred stocks carries significant dangers. Credit risk, call risk, extension risk, liquidity risk, and the possibility that tax laws may alter adversely may be some of these.

Cyclical equities are ones that fluctuate with the economy and have a tendency to rise when it’s growing and fall when it’s declining. Automobile manufacturers, airlines, furniture merchants, and hotels are a few examples of cyclical stocks.

Despite being riskier than more secure defensive companies, cyclical equities may nevertheless be worthwhile to purchase. They provide the potential for substantial profits and profit, but timing them right is crucial.

When the economy experiences a recession, they are equally vulnerable to significant losses. Cyclical stocks ought to only be included in tactical asset allocations because of this.

Conversely, defensive stocks are businesses whose operations are less reliant on the state of the economy. Frequently seen as non-cyclical or recession-resistant stocks include businesses like those in the food and beverage, healthcare, and real estate investment trust sectors.

Shares of businesses that sell for less than what their fundamentals would indicate are known as value stocks. They often have low P/B and P/E ratios and strong dividend yields.

They are a sort of investment that can generate excellent profits over an extended period of time. They carry some risk, though, and their value may decline if their growth strategies don’t materialize.

Value stocks are an excellent method to diversify your investment portfolio and generate strong profits. They’re also a great option if you want to start investing in foreign stocks.



Andrew Denney Springfield MO

Andrew Denney of Springfield, Missouri is a highly accomplished financial services executive and business owner.